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پیادهسازی آرایه فازی نوری: مدولاتور فاز مبتنی بر ITO، آرایه فاز نوری سیلیکون فوتونیک و آرایههای کریستال فوتونیک داخلی
Implementation of Optical Phased Array: ITO Based Phase Modulator, Silicon Photonics Optical Phased Array & InP Photonics Crystal Arrays
Optical beam steering is widely used in in three-dimensional (3D) imaging, like Lidar for remote sensing and mapping, secure free-space optical communications, and holography. At present, the commercial optical beam steering system, which is made by mechanical scanning, is hard to integrate to small-size platform and meet the speed requirement of some application scenarios. To integrate such a system in small-size platform, e.g. self-driving car and drones, the key point is to miniaturize the whole system, which is need to reduce the size, weight, and the power consumption.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), and photonic integrated circuit (PIC)are two different solutions to achieve miniaturization. However, due to MEMS based on mechanical scanning, it is hard to achieve fast scanning. On the contrary, PIC technology not only holds the promise of achieving low-cost, compact, robust and energy-efficient complex optical systems, but electro-optical or electro-thermal modulator can easily achieve high speed (GHz). ITO is a promising material to achieve efficiency and high speed modulator. ITO has good electrical conductivity and optical transparency. With charge carriers increasing in ITO, the transparency of ITO will decrease, which means strong optical modulation can be achieved by using ITO.
This thesis paper fathoms the possibilities of building the optical phased array system based on ITO. The ITO based MZM phased modulator and optical phased have been proposed and analyzed in this paper. Also the fabrication process of those device is presented. Moreover, the optical phased array built by photonics crystal array with ITO is proposed in this paper.
پیادهسازی پلتفرمهای کنترل نور کارآمد در فوتونیک یکپارچه: آرایههای کریستال فوتونیک InP، ردیابها و کوپلهای گریتینگ
Implementation of Efficient Light Control Platforms in Integrated Photonics: InP Photonics Crystal Arrays, Modetector & Grating Couplers
As the Nano-fabrication process technology is approaching 7nm, the electronic device in the modern microsystems start to face the limitations driven by fundamental physical challenges such as quantum tunneling and leakage. Moreover, the increasingly complicated processes such as silicon-on-insulator (SOI) and double patterning technology are implemented which currently used as the main possible solution to relieve physical constrains, are continually driving up manufacturing costs. Rather than introducing even complicated processes, new options, such as photonics and plasmonic have been investigated in the past few decades to improve the cost-efficiency of microsystems.
However, Photonics, although could be used in long-haul communication, is still suffering from multiple limitations, such as the diffraction limitation, larger on-chip footprint and relatively low light-matter interaction (LMI), which all limited the photonics in term of on-chip communication and further applications. Plasmonic, on the other hand, which could shrink the light mode into sub-wavelength scale because of the nm-scale effective wavelength of the plasma oscillations with orders of magnitude higher LMIs, suffers from only a few tens of microns of propagation distance due to its intrinsic high Ohmic loss.
This thesis paper fathoms the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of light modulation on-chip by combining the Photonics and Plasmonic. Several hybrid photonic-plasmonics devices have been proposed and analyzed in this thesis. This thesis also introduces the fabrication process of devices integrated with waveguides and grating couplers. In addition, a surface-normal 2D slow-light PC waveguide array has been demonstrated which have the potential to fulfill the light modulation in free space.