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تأثیر پوشش زبانی و غیرزبانی بر پتانسیلهای مرتبط با رویداد شنیداری مرتبط با پردازش معنایی: مطالعه پیری
The Effects of Linguistic and Non-linguistic Masking on Auditory Event-Related Potentials Related to Semantic Processing: An Aging Study
Suprathreshold repetition and recognition level tasks have illustrated age-related differences in linguistic and non-linguistic masking effects; however, these effects at the semantic processing level are unclear. Repetition and recognition tasks intentionally limit higher order, cognitive processes which potentially play a greater role in speech understanding. In order to incorporate linguistic and cognitive processes associated with speech understanding in complex listening environments, this study used a semantic judgment in noise task where participants were asked to make a decision based on a heard word pair. The purpose of this study was to determine if middle-aged adults were more negatively affected by linguistic masking than non-linguistic masking during semantic processing when compared to young adults as indicated by behavioral and auditory event-related potential (AERP) measures. During the semantic judgment in noise task, participants indicated via button press whether word pairs were semantically related or unrelated. This task was performed in 3 listening conditions: quiet, forward presented two-talker speech competition, and reverse presented two-talker speech competition. Participants for this study were 16 young adults (19–31 years) and 16 middle-aged adults (41–57 years) with normal hearing sensitivity. Behavioral measures of accuracy and reaction time were analyzed using a mixed design multivariate analysis of variances. AERP measures of mean amplitudes and peak latencies for the N400 and late positive component (LPC) were analyzed using separate mixed design analysis of variances. Although behavioral data did not indicate any age-related differences on the effects of linguistic and non-linguistic masking during semantic processing, mean N400 amplitudes and peak LPC latencies illustrated subtle age-related differences in linguistic and cognitive processes during the semantic judgment in noise task. Mean N400 amplitudes indicated that young and middle-aged adults had similar depths of processing for semantically related word pairs; however, depth of processing for semantically unrelated word pairs were reduced for middle-aged adults compared to young adults. Additionally, mean N400 amplitudes for semantically related word pairs were more negative as a result of linguistic and non-linguistic masking while amplitudes for semantically unrelated word pairs were not influenced by either masker. LPC latencies suggested that middle-aged adults were negatively affected by competition while LPC latencies for young adults were not significantly different. AERP measures did not reveal a significant difference between either masker; however, reaction times were longer in linguistic than non-linguistic masking. While the effects of linguistic and non-linguistic masking on the semantic judgment in noise tasks were similar between young and middle-aged adults, AERP measures did reveal age-related differences in linguistic and cognitive processing as a result of competition. Findings from this study highlight the utility of a semantic processing task and AERP measures to identify age-related differences in linguistic and cognitive processing in complex listening environments that may not be evident in suprathreshold repetition/recognition task or behavioral data.
ذرات در افعال عبارتی - یک رویکرد زبانی شناختی برای ساخت معنا در زمینه EFL
Particles in Phrasal Verbs — A Cognitive Linguistic Approach to Meaning Construction in the EFL Context
This study aimed to investigate the way in which Mandarin Chinese-speaking English learners construct meanings on three opposite sets of particles, consisting of ‘in’-‘out’, ‘on’-‘off’, and ‘up’-‘down’ within thirty ‘selected’ phrasal verbs via three cognitive linguistic approaches, i.e. image schemas, categorisation, and frame semantics in order to shed light on the context of Cognitive Linguistics and EFL.
Forty-eight participants were recruited from universities in the UK and Taiwan for this study and all of them share the same L1, i.e. Mandarin Chinese. The present study utilized a qualitative-based methodology, comprising a questionnaire, a pre-test, a set of worksheets as teaching and learning materials used in a series of training sessions with the three cognitive linguistic approaches, a post-test, and an interview. A questionnaire was used to explore EFL learners’ leaning difficulty and learning strategies when it comes to the acquisition of phrasal verbs. A comparison of the results emerging from the pre-test and post-test and an analysis of the set of worksheets were employed to measure and evaluate the effects of cognitive linguistic approaches on three training groups (the Image schemas Training Group, the Categorisation Training Group, and the Frame Semantics Training Group) and also to identify the similar and unique meaning construction on particles in phrasal verbs between English and Mandarin Chinese. In addition, an interview with the participants from the three training groups was conducted to investigate the strengths and weaknesses of the use of cognitive linguistic approaches in the acquisition of particles in phrasal verbs.
Results demonstrated that none of the cognitive linguistic approaches was better than the others adopted in this study. The thesis discusses some aspects of the findings: (1) the similar and unique patterns of meaning construction on particles in phrasal verbs between native English users and Mandarin Chinese-speaking EFL learners, (2) the benefits of adopting cognitive linguistic approaches; (3) the types of difficulty that have remained after receiving the training sessions.
This study makes several contributions to the practical application of cognitive linguistics and EFL pedagogical design. Despite some limitations, the study suggests that raising awareness of similar and unique meaning construction on particles in phrasal verbs between two languages via cognitive linguistic approaches can play a key role in assisting L2 learners to understand phrasal verbs.