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تاریخ شفاهی گروه نیروی دریایی B-1: اولین گروه تمام سیاهان نیروی دریایی جنگ جهانی دوم
An Oral History of the Navy Band B-1: The First All-Black Navy Band of World War II
This study investigates the service of the Navy Band B-1, the first all-black Navy band to serve during World War II. For many years it was believed that the black musicians of the Great Lakes Camp held the distinction as the first all-black Navy band to serve during World War II. However, prior to the opening of the Navy’s Negro School of Music at the Great Lakes Camps, the Navy Band B-1 had already completed its training and was in full service. This study documents the historical timeline of events associated with the formation of the Navy Band B-1, the recruitment of the bandsmen, their service in the United States Navy, and their valuable contributions to the country. Surviving members of the Navy Band B-1 were interviewed to share their stories and reflections of their service during World War II. The Navy Band B-1 served as ambassadors for the Navy and representatives of racial change in the American military tradition.
بین اسطوره و خاطره: مورد یادبودهای فاشیست ایتالیایی جنگ جهانی اول
Between Myth and Memory: The Case of Italian Fascist World War I Monuments
“Between Myth and Memory: The Case of Italian Fascist World War I Monuments” examines the relationship between Italian soldiers’ testimonies from the First World War and later Italian Fascist monuments that commemorated their sacrifices. During the First World War, soldiers’ diaries and letters home expressed feelings of abandonment, dehumanization, and a lack of patriotic enthusiasm for the war effort. Combined with the Supreme Command’s widespread use of summary executions, the mass desertion at the Battle of Caporetto, and the Italian government’s complete abandonment of its prisoners of war, the First World War was a tragic experience for many. By contrast, Italian Fascist World War I memorials largely omitted the negative aspects of war and painted a more positive, usable memory of the war. Through the examination of three local and three national monuments, I argue that Fascist World War I monuments displaced the reality of the war experience and promoted a Fascist narrative of the First World War. Moreover, the messages conveyed in these monuments suggest that the memorialization of fallen soldiers remained secondary to the goals of the regime. For the regime, it was critical to generate a Fascist narrative of the conflict as it attempted to cultivate support for a Fascist society that rejected the liberal values of the past and looked to an idealized future in which Italy would become a strong, imperial state.