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توسعه امتناع از دعوت توسط زبان آموزان دوم عربی اماراتی: مهارت زبان و مدت اقامت در جامعه هدف
The Development of Refusals to Invitations by L2 Learners of Emirati Arabic: Language Proficiency and Length of Residence in the Target Community
Since the majority of Arabic language institutes teach Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), studies of the speech act performance of learners of Arabic as a second/foreign language compare learners’ productions made in MSA with the productions of native Arabic speakers. However, MSA is not spoken natively, and Arabic speech acts are performed orally. Therefore, individuals in the sample group either use their own dialect or they consciously code-switch to MSA, which leads to artificial production, especially when those productions are elicited via a written DCT. The present study, however, used the closed role-play data collection method so as to investigate the development of refusals to invitations made by L2 learners of Emirati Arabic at two levels of ability, low-intermediate and advanced, and to compare their production with the production of native Emirati Arabic speakers. The goal here is to determine whether there is a positive correlation between the learners’ language proficiency and their pragmatic development. Further, the study seeks to determine whether length of residence in the target community plays a significant role in acquiring Emirati Arabic refusals to invitations. The goal of the study’s second objective is to determine whether there is a positive correlation between length of residence in the target community and pragmatic development. Regarding both objectives, the current study is interested in revealing whether or not the status of interlocutors (higher, equal, or lower) modifies the degree of directness, semantic formulas, and content of NSs and NNS’s refusals to invitations in the same way. The study used the same classification scheme of refusal strategies that was proposed by Beebe et al. (1990) but with different situations and scenarios. Findings showed differences between the NS and NNSs of Emirati Arabic in the frequency, content, and order of the semantic formulas used as well as the effect of interlocutors’ social statuses on these variables. Further, findings revealed that learners of Emirati Arabic were remarkably more direct than the Emirati Arabic NSs, while the former learners who remained longer in the target community produced refusal patterns similar to those the Emirati Arabic NSs produced.
تأثیر موانع ارتباطی زبانی بر ارائه مراقبتهای بهداشتی پزشکان غیر عرب و روشهای رسیدگی به مسائل نادرست: یک مطالعه اکتشافی - پدیدارشناختی در بحرین
The Impact of Language Communication Barriers on Non-Arab Medical Practitioners’ Healthcare Delivery and Ways of Addressing Miscommunication Issues: an Exploratory-Phenomenological Study of Bahrain
This thesis explores and uncovers the language communication barriers faced by non-Arabic speaking medical practitioners from different fields of specializations and different years of experience. These practitioners work in public or private medical institutions/hospitals in Bahrain (i.e., the context of the research is diverse). The study identified and highlighted language communication challenges and the potential accompanied consequences and effects on medical practitioners’ professions and/ level of medical services provided. This research further aims to come up with a number of potential coping strategies and future support to solve the issue of language communication barrier encountered by non-Arabic speaking medical practitioners when dealing and diagnosing Arab patients in a diverse Arab medical context in the Bahrain Kingdom.
This research is an exploratory phenomenological study, and it follows a qualitative approach with the use of a semi-structured interview as a method of data collection involving on a number of non-Arab medical practitioners from different medical specialties and various years of professional experience working in three research sites, represented in three medical hospitals and one higher education medical institution. The main analysis method used for analyzing the collected data is the thematic analysis method (Braun & Clarke, 2006) in addition to using the NVivo software for qualitative data analysis to maximize the accuracy of the data collection analysis results.
It is thus expected that the findings of the present study will contribute to first, enhance medical and healthcare services by highlighting both unique and common language communication barriers faced during real- based doctor-patient communication process, resulted consequences of such barriers, learnt coping strategies followed by medical practitioners in their daily clinical practice and recommending practical future coping strategies and solutions. Second, this study further contributes to informing the teaching and learning of Arabic language communication for medical and healthcare purposes as part of the health care studies in higher education and add to higher education context in the field of medical education, for medical and nursing students, academics and for medical practitioners. One further aim, through this study recommendation is that the aim to convey the study message and findings to the medical and healthcare authorities in this study contexts to facilitate the way of establishing new policies, professional training solutions and future projects.