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فضاهای سبز پاریس در آثار گی دو موپاسان از 1880-1886
Parisian Green Spaces in the Work of Guy de Maupassant from 1880–1886
France in the nineteenth century was a chaotic period of social, cultural, and political revolution. Yet out of this tumultuous climate arose numerous symbols and images associated with modern France, not the least of which is Paris, one of the most celebrated cities in the world. Paris has lived at the center of literary works throughout time, but it is in the nineteenth century that French authors begin to sketch the capital city in stark contrast to the countryside. Some, such as Stendhal, focused on Paris as the locus for success, but also of corruption, in contrast to the countryside, which came to represent family, origins, tradition, but also stagnancy.
Guy de Maupassant (1850-1893) positioned himself on this literary continuum by characterizing Paris as a modern metropolis not against the countryside, but rather, aware of itself as an urban setting that required natural green spaces for its very integrity. While Maupassant certainly delivered depictions of corruption in Paris, his representation of the city was more complex and served to drive character and plot development in the narrative. His characters often ventured into Parisian green spaces, and by circulating in and out of their urban settings, Maupassant allowed them to grow both as individuals and in partnerships with others.
It is my aim to illustrate the narrative function and socio-cultural necessity of Parisian green spaces in selected works by Maupassant, from the short stories “Les Dimanches d’un bourgeois de Paris”, “Menuet”, “Deux amis”, and “Mademoiselle Perle”, to the novel, Bel-Ami. Although these works and, indeed, Maupassant, have never before been considered as early examples of what we now call nature writing, they can arguably be considered as relevant precursors to this movement in more contemporary French literature. Ultimately, these works show that Maupassant broke with the traditional image of Paris contre province and offered us instead a Paris qui a besoin de la province.
آلودگی صوتی، عدالت زیست محیطی و دسترسی به فضای سبز شهری: مطالعه موردی در سن خوزه، کالیفرنیا
Noise Pollution, Environmental Justice, and Urban Green Space Accessibility: A Case Study in San José, California
Noise pollution is an environmental stressor associated with a number of poor health outcomes. Promisingly, recent studies have identified urban green spaces such as public parks and community gardens as-built environments that can minimize noise pollution in the urban context. The objective of this project was to identify low-income communities of color that lack urban green space accessibility within the city of San José, California, to determine if sound level could be an indicator of urban green space usage and to evaluate whether urban green space can mitigate noise. Neighborhood demographics based on census tract data, including ethnicity and socioeconomic status, were analyzed with Leq (average sound) data to compare sound levels in urban green spaces. Overall, urban green space ratings compared to average inside and outside Leq ratings were dependent upon the park attendee counts within the urban green space areas. It appeared that Leq measurements near the center of the urban green space were lower in decibel levels as compared to Leq outside measurements; however, there were no statistically significant relationships derived from statistical tests. The overall study also found no statistically significant results, although there were clear displays of low and low/middle-income urban green spaces experiencing lower decibel readings compared to middle/high and high-income urban green space areas.