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Exploring the Strategies Needed by Healthcare Managers to Improve Pharmacy Medication Dispensing Procedures in an Acute Care Hospital Setting
Medical errors are a serious problem in healthcare today. In 1999, the Institute of Medicine (IoM) estimated as many as 98,000 hospitalized Americans die each year as a result of errors in their care (Institute of Medicine, 1999). Many people die from medical error mistakes each year than from highway accidents, breast cancer, or AIDS. However, the actual figure is presumably much higher than statistics given because the record only accounts for patients in the hospital and does not account for people who may likely take medication at home. Limited studies examine the extent of the involvement of human factors and the relationship of a patient safety program as well as the associated outcomes of improved safety and errors. Using the qualitative method, this study analyzed the strategies needed by healthcare managers to improve pharmacy medication dispensing procedures in an acute care hospital setting. The purpose of this qualitative exploratory study was to identify and examine the strategies needed by healthcare managers to improve pharmacy medication dispensing procedures in an acute care hospital setting. An exploratory approach was used to interview nine healthcare managers with a wealth of experience in an acute care hospital setting. The data analysis revealed six primary themes and 11 sub-themes that include communication, education, training, culture, leadership, and periodic medical routine check-up. The result from this study could provide valuable information and guidance to healthcare leadership, pharmacy hospitals, acute care hospitals setting, and long-term care settings as well as healthcare regulatory bodies to focus medication safety efforts, resources, and standard.
فراوانی و میزان مشارکت بیش از هزینه داروی تجویزی
Frequency and Magnitude of Co-payments Exceeding Prescription Drug Cost
Objective: To investigate the healthcare expenditure in prescription drug and analyze the frequency and the magnitude of overpayments in prescription drug.
Methods: Data from the 2016 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey was analyzed. Survey respondents of top ten most commonly prescribed drugs in 2016 were included in the study. Data from National Average Drug Acquisition Cost was used to identify the unit price of the prescription drugs. As NADAC changed quarterly, the average was calculated. The NDC and drug strength was used to verify the unit price with corresponding drug. The equation used to calculate estimated cash price of drug was: (Quantity dispensed x Unit Price) + Profit Margin + Dispensing Fee. Two scenarios were constructed accounting different dispensing fee – a higher and a lower. The calculated value was compared to the self OOP value reported in MEPS to determine overpaid cases.
Results: With lower-end dispensing fee accounted, 29.23% of cases involved overpayment overall, with average magnitude of $8.14. With higher-end dispensing fee accounted, 6.61% of cases involved overpayment, with average magnitude of $14.59
Conclusion: Patients’ OOP cost exceed acceptable limits very frequently despite use of insurance for very commonly used generic medications. Benefit designs need to be modified and pharmacists need to look for cost saving opportunities for patients.