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A Mathematical Approach to Paint Production Process Optimization
As the global paint market steadily grows, finding the most effective processing model to increase production capacity will be the best way to enhance competitiveness. Therefore, this study proposes two production environments commonly used in the paint industry: build-to-order (BTO) and the variation of a configuration-to-order (CTO), called group production, to schedule paint production. Mixed-Integer Linear Program (MILP) was solved using genetic algorithms (GA) to analyze two production environments with various products, different set-up times, and different average demand for each product. The models determine the number of batches, the size and product of each batch, and the batch sequence such that the makespan is minimized. Several numerical instances are presented to analyze the proposed models. The experimental results show that BTO production completes products faster than group production when products are simple (low variety). However, group production is more applicable to manufacturing diverse products (high variety) and mass production (high volume). Finally, the number of colors has the most significant impact on the two models, followed by the number of product types, and finally the average demand.
بررسی تاثیر غلظت حجم رنگدانه بر خواص فیزیکی و شیمیایی رنگهای امولسیونی اکریلیک با استفاده از NMR یک طرفه
Effect of Pigment Volume Concentration on Physical and Chemical Properties of Acrylic Emulsion Paints Assessed Using Single-sided NMR
Acrylic emulsion paint is one of the most common media employed by 20th century painters. Since early acrylic paintings have begun to require the attention of conservators, scientists are working to characterize the properties of these paints to facilitate conservation efforts. In this study, we report an investigation of the physical and chemical properties of acrylic emulsion paints using single-sided NMR in conjunction with gloss measurements and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry. Combining the data from these techniques gives insight into pigment-binder interactions and the acrylic curing process, showing that as pigment concentration is increased in paints, the amount of binder adsorbed to pigment particles increases, resulting in films with differing relaxation times. Furthermore, pigments with a larger surface area or smaller particle size will have a greater effect on physical properties as concentration increases. This research emphasizes the efficacy of NMR relaxometry in studying cultural heritage objects, and may prompt further study into the effects of pigment concentration on the curing and conservation of acrylic paint films.