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رعد و برق غیرقابل توضیح شبانه در ایستگاه نیروی هوایی کیپ کاناورال/منطقه مرکز فضایی کندی
Unexplained Nocturnally Forming Lightning in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station/Kennedy Space Center Area
Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (KSC/CCAFS) experience thunderstorms on an almost daily basis during the warm season (May through September). Most thunderstorms occur in the afternoon and are accurately forecast with respect to timing and location. However, on rare occasions, thunderstorms form at night with no apparent cause. These unexpected events can catch forecasters off-guard, leading to missed lightning watches and unexpected dangerous situations. The goal of the present research is to address the lack of knowledge of these unexplained nocturnally forming lightning events near KSC/CCAFS and provide forecasters with additional information about the events. The study area is a rectangle centered on the Space Shuttle Roll-Out at KSC and oriented parallel to Florida’s coast. Lightning flash data from the Earth Networks Total Lightning Network (ENTLN) and the National Lightning Detection Network, and radar data from the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) were used to identify case nights and null nights (i.e., nights with an unexplained nocturnal thunderstorm and nights without, respectively), and generate a climatology of case nights. From sounding data, 24 different variables quantifying atmospheric moisture, hydrostatic stability, and wind shear were investigated to identify a possible discriminating parameter between case nights and null nights. Results showed that July had a greater occurrence of case nights, and the greatest frequency of first flash times was at 0500 UTC, about 5 h after local sunset. The results also revealed case nights had slightly greater potential for convection, but unfortunately there was no variable that had a statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence interval between case nights and null nights.
اقلیم شناسی سیستم های همرفتی شبه خطی در ایالات متحده
A Climatology of Quasi-Linear Convective Systems in the U.S.
Quasi-linear convective systems, or QLCSs, are a common, organized thunderstorm mode in the U.S. Over the last fifty years, severe weather research has focused on the supercell, but, recently, QLCSs have become an increasingly important area of study. Researchers and operational meteorologists realize that this morphology is difficult to forecast and may be responsible for a large proportion of the severe weather reports in the eastern two-thirds of the U.S. This study seeks to determine the degree to which QLCSs threaten humans and their assets by, first, assessing their climatology and, second, measuring their contribution to the severe report record. Initially, an objective classification scheme was developed and employed to detect and track QLCSs on conterminous U.S. composite radar data spanning the most recent two decades. The objective classification scheme, or computer algorithm, was constructed using machine learning techniques on thousands of subjectively, expert-defined QLCSs from a sample of observed mesoscale convective system events during the observed record. After the scheme was tested and verified, a descriptive climatology of QLCSs was produced. The climatology assessed algorithm-identified QLCS slices (instantaneous footprint of an event) and swaths (the entire footprint of an event) as units of measure, providing the first, long-term spatiotemporal analysis of this morphology. Thereafter, QLCS slices were linked with the severe storm database to determine the proportion of thunderstorm hazard reports produced by this morphology. Results show that, on average, there are 139 QLCSs in any given year. The majority occur in three corridors, depending on the year and season: the eastern High Plains into western Missouri and Arkansas; the Midwest, stretching from Iowa through Wisconsin and northern Illinois to Indiana; and the South, from the central Gulf Coast to Tennessee. QLCSs are found to account for more than one-third of severe wind reports, as well as more than one-fifth of reported tornadoes. The overarching goal of the research was to 1) develop an objective analysis routine that can assist meteorologists in identifying QLCSs in observed and simulated radar reflectivity data, 2) provide the first objectively identified, long-term climatology of QLCSs in the U.S., and 3) increase scientific understanding of the impacts of QLCS hazards on the populace and built environment.